Ottoman music is based on modes (makam) and rhythm (Usul), and thus is classified as monophonic. Nevertheless, a polyphonic texture is what is encountered. Under this classification, what we can paradoxically call a ‘monophonic texture’ has been described as “heterophony”. Heterophony is roughly described/analyzed as the simultaneous performance of different variants of the same melody. I will here present my analysis of heterophony and show how it can accounts for the same data and predicts many others that cannot be accounted for by the theory of heterophony as described above. From this, I will go on to explore how heterophony is used in the acquisition of the abstract systems underlying the repertoire. I will finally address the way archives are used to level this variation, especially in the context of the apparition of the modern state and its search for homogeneity.
Faculty: Nicolas Royer-Artuso