One of the consequences of the influence of Western thoughts on what remained of the Ottoman tradition in the Republican era was the import of the equal-tempered system for the tuning of instruments and the addition, over this system, of extra microtones needed to play the makams. Even for a modal system not as rich as the Ottoman one in microtonality (the folk one, for example), this had dramatic consequences on theory and practice. But for the Ottoman system, many more problems surfaced. Many of these problems will be touched upon in this talk. I will also discuss what I call the ‘phonology of dialectical variation’ in the world of makam and show how a single system can take different allophonic forms. I will also show evolution in some regions where some inconsistencies brought about the loss of the system in favour of a radically different one, i.e. modal to more tonal.
Faculty: Nicolas Royer-Artuso